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Cornell University Library QL 687.B61

Blologia centrali-americana. Ayes

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BIOLOGIA

CENTRALI-AMERICANA.

A VES.

Vol. I.

BY

OSBERT SALVm, F.R.S., &c.,

AND

FREDERICK DUCANE GODMAN, D.C.L., F.R.S., &c.

1879-1904.

CONTENTS OF YOL. L

Page

Introduction v

Table showing the Geographical Distribution of the Families of Birds

REPRESENTED IN MeXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA xi

Table showing the Geographical Distribution of the Species of Birds of

Mexico and Central America xiii

List of Plates xxxix

Errata et Corrigenda xliii

Subclass AVES CARINA!^ Order Passeres . . . Suborder Oscines . .

Section I. Oscines Dentirostj Fam. Turdidse . . . Subfam. Turdinse Miminse Myiadectinse Pam. Cinclidse . . . Fam. Sylviidse . . . Subfam. Saxicolinse . Regulinse . Polioptilinse Fam. Paridse . . Fam. Sittidse . . Fam. Certhiidse . Fam. Troglodytidse Fam. Motacillidse Fam. Mniotiltidse Subfam. Mniotiltinse Icteriinse . Setophaginse Fam. Vireonidse . . .

Page

ES

26

39

43

45

45

48

50

55

59

61

62

107

109

109

157

163

185

Page Fam. Laniidse . . ... 213 Fam. Ampelidse 215

Section II. Oscines Latirostres . . 223

Fam. Hirundinidse 223

Section III. Oscines Tenuirostres . 241 Fam. Ccerebidse 241

Section IV. Oscines Conirostres . 353

Fam. Tanagridse 252

Subfam. Euphoniinse .... 253

Tanagrinse .... 366

Fam. Fringillidse 334

Section V. Oscines Cultrirostres . 435

Fam. Icteridse 435

Subfam. Cassicinse 435

Agelseinse 447

Sturnellinse . . . , 456

Icterinse 459

Quiscalinae .... 479

Fam. Corvidse 486

Subfam. Corvinse 486

Garrulinse .... 489 Fam. Alaudidse 5io

a 2

INTRODUCTIOxN.

The enumeration of the Aves of Mexico and Central America was commenced in September 1879 by the late Osbert Salvin and myself, and is now completed in four Volumes, three of text and one of plates. Salvin's long-continued ill-health, and sudden death in 1898, greatly retarded the conclusion of the Third Volume, which was subsequently finished by me with the assistance of Dr. E. Bowdler Sharpe and Mr. Ogilvie-Grant. On this account, too, it has been decided to abandon all idea of a Supplement, and to close the volumes as they stand. The critical examination of the large amount of additional material that has come to hand during the progress of publication, and the analysis of the extensive literature on the subject issued in recent years, could only have been dealt with satisfactorily with the assistance of Salvin himself, and I am reluctantly compelled to leave this portion of the subject untouched. It may be noted, however, that the additions are mainly amongst the Passeres, which were completed in 1892.

The physical features of the whole region are described in the Preface to the "Lepidoptera Rhopalocera," concluded in 1901, and in the Appendix to the Botany, published in 1887, and need not be again repeated here. This Introduction will therefore be chiefly devoted to some remarks on geographical distribution, to the journeys made by us in Central America, and the sources from which our material has been obtained, concluding with a Table showing the distribution of the Families and Species as arranged in this work. To make this latter as complete as possible, the additional countries whence specimens were subsequently received are, however, specially indicated.

In dealing with the Birds we have extended the limits of our region, so as to include the Kevillagigedo Islands on the Pacific side (on account of the numerous sea-birds inhabiting them) ; the Island of Old Providence on the Atlantic side (this small island

VI INTEODUCTION.

having a peculiar humming-bird, Lampornis hendersoni) ; and some places on the Isthmus of Darien a little to the south of the political limit of the State of Panama. Baja (or Lower) California, though belonging politically to Mexico, is excluded.

The 1413 species of birds included in this work embrace representatives of seventy-eight families and 539 genera. Out of the twenty Orders given in the ' Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium ' (1873), all but three (the Opisthocomi, the Struthiones, and the Impennes) are represented. The other Neotropical families wholly absent from Central America are the Phytotomidse, amongst the Passeres ; the Steatornithidse, of the Macrochires ; the Todidse, of the Coccyges ; the Palamedeidse, of the Anseres ; the Cariamidse and Psophiidse, of the Geranomorphae ; and the Chionididse and Thinocoridse, of the Limicolse. To the Passeres belong rather more than half (741) of the total number of Central- American species, this proportion being much greater than that given in the 'Nomenclator' for the whole of the Neotropical Kegion, with 3565 species, where the numbers are 1976 and 1589 respectively.

The geographical distribution of the families, exclusive of the Sea-birds and Waders, may be stated as follows : (1) Exclusively Neotropical Coerebidse, Oxyrhamphidse, Pipridse, Dendrocolaptidse, Formicariidse, Pteroptochidae, Momotidse, Galbulidse, Bucconidae, Ehamphastidse, Cancromidae, Eurypygidse, and Tinamidse (the subfamily Tinamotidinse excepted) ; (2) Neotropical, but represented by one or more species in North America ^Tanagridse {Pyranga), Icteridae, Tyrannidse, Cotingidae {Hadrostomus), Trochilidse, Sarcorhamphidae, Cracidae, Aramidse, and Parridae; (3) Tropical countries generally Trogonidae and Psittacidae (each with a single species extending to a little north of our boundary), Capitonidae, Plotidae, and Heliornithidae ; (4) North and Central America Meleagridae (not reaching south of Guatemala); (5) Nearctic, migrating south during the northern winter Mniotiltidae and Vireonidae ; (6) Holarctic, migrating south during the northern winter Turdidae, Motacillidae, Laniidse, Hirun- dinidae, Fringillidae, Cypselidae, Caprimulgidae, Picidae ; and (7) Cosmopolitan Corvidae, Alaudidae, Cuculidae, Strigidae, Asionidae, Pandionidae, Falconidae, Ardeidae, Ciconiidse, Plataleidae, Ibididae, Phoenicopteridse (except Australia), Anatidse, Colum- bidae, Peristeridae, Phasianidae, Eallidae, Gruidte, CEdicnemidae (not reaching north of Mexico), and Charadriidae.

Amongst the genera, thirty-eight are endemic : Trochilidae (14), Fringillidae (4), Momotidae, Corvidse, Ampelidae, and Turdidse (2 each), and Troglodytidae, Mniotiltidae,

INTEODUCTION. vu

VireonidsBj Tanagridse, Icteridse, Tyrannidae, Cotingidse, Formicariidae, Pteroptochidae, Caprimulgidse, Trogonidse, and Cracidse (1 each).

Out of the total number of 1413 species enumerated, 636 are endemic. Of these latter, 271 are peculiar to {a) Mexico, Honduras, or Guatemala, 3 to [b) Nicaragua, and 1G2 to (c) Costa Eica or Panama, the remainder (189) being more widely distributed within the region or common to t^YO of these divisions.

The Trochilidse include 118 species, with 84 endemic; the Fringillidse 104, with 52 endemic; the Tanagridae 86, with 46 endemic; the Formicariidae 52, with 28 endemic; the Dendrocolaptidae 47, with 26 endemic ; the Troglodytidae 46, with 30 endemic; the Turdidae 41, with 24 endemic ; the Psittacidse 34, with 24 endemic ; the Phasianidae 32, with 25 endemic ; the Peristeridae 30, with 19 endemic ; the Cotingidse 26, with 12 endemic ; the Trogonidee 16, with 11 endemic; the Cracidae 14, with 12 endemic; the Tinamidae 11, with 8 endemic j and the Rhamphastidae 10, with 7 endemic.

It will thus be seen that these fifteen families are all rich in peculiar forms, and that the families themselves are almost all tropical. On the other hand, a large number of species belonging to the more widely distributed genera find their winter home in Mexico and Central America, or even further south, returning to breed in the Nearctic Eegion, some Humming-birds (such as TrocMlus coluhris and Selasphorus rufus) and others wandering far north at this season. It would be very interesting to show the lines of migration of many of the species, but we have not sufficient data for this purpose. Some of them, no doubt, travel southward from the United States to the mainland of South America by way of the Caribbean or the West Indian Islands, perhaps just touching the eastern part of our region en route. Others probably find their way down the central tablelands, and a iev/ western species, again, pass down the lowlands of the Pacific coast.

The Tres Marias, Coiba, and Pearl Islands in the Pacific, and the islands of Cozumel, Mugeres, Holbox, Euatan, and Old Providence in the Atlantic, possess various slightly modified forms ; and the Eevillagigedo Islands are the home of numerous interesting sea-birds not found on the mainland.

To summarize the results, the Avifauna of Central America may be described as essentially Neotropical, with certain peculiar forms (such as Oreophasis derhianus.

"^■iii INTEODUCTION.

Meleagris ocellata, Pharomacrus mocinno, and Zeledonia coronata) restricted to it. Central America, as here treated, is in fact merely a sub region of the Neotropical Eegion, with a large admixture of Nearctic forms, especially during the northern winter.

India, including Ceylon and Burma, the birds of which have been most exhaustively studied, and which is perhaps the only other well-defined tropical region with which the Central-American Avifauna can be compared, has 1626 species (Blanford, 1898) as against our 1413. It must be remembered, however, that the area of India is nearly twice as large as that of our region, so that the balance of numbers is very considerably in favour of Central America, North America has 768 species (A.O.U. Check-list, 1895).

The material for this work was mainly obtained by Salvin and myself during our several visits to Central America. Salvin visited Guatemala three times in 1857- 1858 ; 1861-1863, in company with myself, for part of the time ; and, finally, in 1867. On his way to and from Guatemala he also collected (with me) in British Honduras, and on one of these trips he also investigated en route various places on the Isthmus of Panama, Salvin first reached Belize in December 1857, After a few days' stay he proceeded down the coast to Yzabal, over the inland lake called the Golfo Dulce, and thence to the city of Guatemala, collecting by the way, Duenas, about thirty miles south of the capital, situated between the Volcanoes of Agua and Fuego, was his headquarters during his six-months' residence in the country ; but he also made two excursions towards the Pacific coast, and one to the lake of Atitlan in the Los Altos region. Leaving the country in June 1858, he returned home by way of Panama. On the second journey I accompanied him. We arrived at Belize in September 1861, having spent about three weeks in Jamaica on the way. From Belize we proceeded via the Golfo Dulce to Yzabal, remained there a few days, and then passed on over the Mico Mountains to the ruins of Quirigua. From Quirigua we travelled via Zacapa and Guatemala city to Duenas, Here we stayed for about three months, collecting principally in the forests on the slopes of the Volcan de Fuego. We then went to San Gerdnimo, in Baja Vera Paz, and spent about two months there, making various excursions to the mountains of Santa Cruz, Chilasco, &c. From San Geronimo we continued our journey to Cohan, whence trips were made to Choctum and Cubilguitz in the low ground of Alta Vera Paz. Salvin left me at Cohan, and went to Peten, by way of Lanquin, Cahabon, and Chisec, and on by the River Belize to Belize, subsequently

INTEODUCTIOTSr, ix

making a most interesting visit (May 1862) to the " Cays," where he found many sea- birds nesting. In the meantime I went to the highlands of Quiche, Guatemala city, Alotepeque, and Copan, and returned to Yzabal by way of Chiquimula, meeting Salvin again on my way home. After I left he passed through the Altos, from Vera Paz, staying at Totonicapam, Quezaltenango, and other places, and made two expeditions to the Costa Grande : one to Retalhuleu, and the other to the lagoons of the coast and the series of small lakes at Huamuchal, close to the frontier of Soconusco. Salvin, on his third journey, arrived at San Jose in May 1873. He made his headquarters again at Duenas, from which place he once more visited the forests of the Volcan de Fuego, the Volcan de Atitlan, and the Altos, travelling thence to San Geronimo, Guatemala city, and San Jose. On his way home he spent a week at Obispo, on the line of the Panama Railroad, returning to England, vid New York, in June 1874. On one of the earlier journeys to Guatemala, Salvin had been fortunate enough to be able to train and secure the services of a native, Enrique Arce, who subsequently went to Costa Eica, Chiriqui, and Veraguas on our behalf.

In 1887-1888 I made an expedition to Mexico, visiting the Volcanoes of Popo- catepetl and Ixtaccihuatl, Jalapa, Misantla, Vera Cruz, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Morelia, Patzcuaro, Amecameca, Yucatan (Merida, Izamal, Ticul, Peto), &c. During part of the time I had with me, as collectors, Mr. W. B. Eichardson, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert H. Smith, and an Indian, M. Trujillo, all of whom did good work and continued to obtain skins for us for some time after I left. Eichardson subsequently visited the Mexican State of Chiapas (1897), the Eepublic of Honduras (1898), Guatemala (Volcan de Santa Maria), and Nicaragua, and sent us many birds from those countries. Mr. H. Eogers was employed by me to visit Costa Eica (1877), and Mr. W. Lloyd and Mr. F. B. Armstrong investigated the provinces of Northern Mexico. Dr. G. F. Gaumer, who accompanied me for a short time in 1888, added to our collection many birds from Cozumel, Mugeres, Holbox, Euatan, and other islands off the coasts of Yucatan and Honduras, as well as from the mainland of Yucatan. Mr. F. Blancaneaux sent us various forms from British Honduras, Mr. C. F. Underwood an extensive series from Costa Rica, and Mr. M'Leannan many birds from the line of the Panama Eailway. The Mexican series purchased by us in 1889 from Senor F. Ferrari-Perez, Director of the Museum at Tacubaya, and the North-American collections acquired from Mr. Henshaw, Mr. W. E. D. Scott, and Mr. C. K. Worthen, have been of much assistance in identifying many of the species, Professor Eidgway having been kind enough to critically examine and determine all the specimens

BIOL. CENTE.-AMJEE., Aves, Vol. I., November 1904. b

X INTEODUCTION.

belonging to the Henshaw collection before they were sent to England. We are also much indebted to Professor Eidgway and the late Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, and others, for the loan of various birds.

Salvia's numerous ornithological papers (some of them written in collaboration with Dr. P. L. Sclater), based upon the collections made by him or by myself in Guatemala and British Honduras, are almost too well known to need recapitulation. Still, it will not be out of place to give the titles of the most important of them here :

(1) Ornithology of Central America^ by P. L. Sclater and O. Salvin. Ibis^ 1859, pp. 1-22,

117-138, 213-234.

(2) Contributions to the Ornithology of Guatemala, by O. Salvin and P. L. Sclater. Ibis, 1860,

pp. 28-45, 272-278, 396-402.

(3) Notes on the Humming-birds of Guatemala, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1860, pp. 259-272. c (4) History of the Derbyan Mountain-Pheasant, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1860, pp. 248-253.

(5) On the Nesting of some Guatemalan Birds, by Robert Owen, with some remarks by 0. Salvin.

Ibis, 1861, pp. 58-69.

(6) Quezal-shooting in Vera Paz, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1861, pp. 138-149.

(7) A List of Species to be added to the Ornithology of Central America, by O. Salvin. Ibis,

1861, pp. 351-357. y, (8) A Fortnight among the Sea-birds of British Honduras, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1864, pp. 372- 387. (9) The Sea-birds and Waders of the Pacific Coast of Guatemala, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1865, pp. 187-199.

(10) A Further Contribution to the Ornithology of Guatemala, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1866,

pp. 188-206.

[612 species were known from Guatemala at this date : it includes Godman^s captures, and makes some corrections to the first paper.]

(11) On the Psittacidse of Central America, by O. Salvin. Ibis, 1871, pp. 86-100.

(12) Nomenclator Avium Neotropicalium, by P. L. Sclater and O. Salvin. (1873.)

The eighty-four hand-coloured Plates issued in this work (including XV. a, LIV. a, LVIII. a, LVIII. I, and LIX. a) have all been drawn by Mr. J. G. Keulemans.

In conclusion, I may state that the whole of our Ornithological Collections, numbering about 85,000 specimens, have been presented by Salvin and myself to the National Museum at South Kensington.

F. D. G.

Novemhtr 1904.

INTRODUCTIOX. xi

Geographical Distribution of the Families of Birds represented in Mexico and

Central America ^.

Vol. I.

Passeres.

Turdidaj

Cinclidse

Sylviidae

Paridse

Sittidse

Certhiidse

Troglodytidae MotaciUidEe .. Mniotiltidse ..

TireonidsB

Laniidse

Hirundiuidse . CoerebidsB .... Tanagridae.... fringillidse . leteridse .... OorTidffi .... Alaudidae ....

Vol. II.

OxyrhamphidEe .

Tyrannidse

Pipridee

Cotingidae

Dendrooolaptidse FormicariidiB . . . Pteroptochidse 2

Maceochires.

Troohilidse

Oypaelidse

Oaprimulgidse

Pici.

Picidse

Coccyges.

Momotidse

Alcedinidffi

Trogonidas

Galbulidje

BuccouidsB

Ouculidse

Capitonidse . . . . Rhamphastidse .

PSITTACI.

Psittacidse

Vol. III.

Stkiges.

Strigidse Asionidse

3

d3

* *\'.

a «

«

0 -. S

Old World, &o.

Generally distributed.

Europe, Asia, N. Africa.

Generally distributed.

Europe, Asia, Africa.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

Europe, Asia.

Generally distributed.

Absent.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

Absent.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

Absent. Absent. Absent. Absent.

Absent. Absent. Absent.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

Europe, Asia, Africa.

Absent.

Generally distributpd.

Tropical Asia and Africa.

Absent.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Tropical Africa and Asia,

Absent.

Tropical Asia, Africa, Australia.

Generally distributed. Generally distributed.

General Remarks.

In the tropics in the vicinity of mountain-streams.

Not represented in S. America.

Not south of Mexico : in Mexico on the mountains only.

Not represented in S. America.

[&c. Peculiar to America, many species wintering in Mexico, Peculiar to America. Not represented in S. America.

Peculiar to America. Peculiar to America.

Peculiar to America.

In 8. America in the Andes of Colombia onlv.

Peculiar to Tropical America.

Peculiar to America; N.-American species migratory.

Peculiar to Tropical America.

Almo.st peculiar toCentr.and S.America, one species only

{Hadrostomus aglaite) reaching north of Mexico. Peculiar to Tropical America. Peculiar to Central and S. America. Peculiar to Central and S. America {Scytalopus).

Peculiar to America.

Temperate and tropical regions generally.

Absent from Madagascar, the Moluccas, Australia, &c.

Peculiar to Tropical America.

One genus only ( Cerj/fe, with very few species) in America.

Peculiar to Central and S. America.

Peculiar to Central and S. America.

Peculiar to Central and S. America.

Peculiar to Central and S. America.

Only one species found north of Mexico.

Extending to the Galapago Is. Cosmopolitan.

1 The dagger (t) indicates that one or more species were subsequently sent us from these districts.

2 Zehdonia was doubtfully referred to this family : it appears, however, from recent investigations, to be a purely Oseinine form.

h2

Xll

INTEODTJCTION.

Geographical Distribution of the Families {continued).

Vol. III. (contin.).

AcoipiTnES.

Pandioiiidse

Falconidae

Sarcorhamphidfe

Steqanopodes.

Phaethontidse

Fregatidse

Peleoanicl£e

Sulidse

PhalaorocoracidEe. Plotidse

Heeodiohes.

Ardeidse

Oancromidse

Ciconiidse

Plataleidae

IbididsB

Phoenicopteridse

Ansebes.

Ajiatides .

CoLUMBiE.

Columbidse Peristeridse

Gallik^.

CracidsB

Meleagridse PluiBiamdEe

GbEAKOMOBPHjE.

Eallidse

Heliornithidae

Araiuidse

Eurypygidse ... Gruidae

LlMICOL^.

CEdicnemidEe..

Parridae

Charadriidse .

GavivB.

i/aridse

Prooellariidse. .

TUBINAEBS.

PuffiniJas ... BiomedeidEe

Pygopodbs.

Colymbidse . . Podicipedidse..

AiiCJS. Alcidse

Cryp/uri. TinamidiE

■3 .

Old World, &(;.

Generally distributed. Generally distributed. Absent.

Tropical regions only. Tropical regions only. Generally distributed. Generally distributed. Generally distributed. Tropical regions only.

Generally distributed.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Absent.

Absent.

Europe, Asia, Africa.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed. Generally distributed.

Absent. Absent. Europe, Asia, Africa.

Generally distributed.

Tropical regions only.

Absent.

Absent.

Generally distributed.

Generally distributed. Tropical regions only. Generally distributed.

Generally distributed. Generally distributed.

Generally distributed.

N. Europe and N. Asia. N. Europe and N. Asia. Absent.

General Remarks.

Cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan. American representatives of the Old World Vulturida;.

Tropical and subtropical seas generally. Tropical and subtropical seas generally. Temperate and tropical coasts of both Hemispheres. Nearly every Temperate and Tropical ocean. Sea-coasts and inland lakes generally. Tropical lakes and rivers.

Confined to Central and South America.

[of both Hemispheres. Generally distributed in Temperate and Tropical portion s Generally distributed in Temperate and Tropical portions

[of both Hemispheres.

Cosmopolitan.

Cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan.

Tropical and Subtropical America only.

Confined to N. Amer., Mexico, and N. part of Centr. Amer

Represented by the Odontophorinse.

Cosmopolitan.

Tropical areas of both Hemispheres. Tropical and Subtropical America. Peculiar to Tropical America.

Temperate and tropical regions of the Old World, not passing south of Mexico in America.

[America. Almost cosmopolitan ; not reaching north of Mexico in Tropical and subtropical regions. Cosmopolitan ; many species migrating north to breed.

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans generally. Atlantic and Pacific Oceans generally.

Atlantic and Pacific Oceans generally. Chiefly oceans of Southern Hemisphere.

[south as Mexico. North parts of both Hemispheres: in America as far Cosmopolitan.

Northern oceans.

Represented in Central America by the Tinaminse.

INTEODUOTION.

xui

Geographical Distribution of the Species of Bieds of Mexico and Central America ^.

Vol. I.

TnEDIDJS.

Catharus melpomene

alticola

frantzii

oocidentalis

fusoater

griseioeps

gracilirostris

mexioanus

dryas

TurduB muatelinus . . fusoescens

swainsom

■. ustulatus

- alioise

pallasi

auduboni

- tristis

- leucauehen. .

plebeius

grayi

- obsoletus

- migratorius . .

- flaTirostris ..

rufitorques .

- pinicola

- infusoatus

uigrescens

GraleosoopteB oarolinenais .. Melanoptila glabriroBtris ..

Melanotis cseruleBcens

hypoleucuB

Harporhynehua longirostris

ocellatus

curvirostris

graysoBi .;

MimuB polyglottus

gilvus

Ehodinocichla rosea

Myiadectes obBOurus

unicolor

melanops

ClNCLID^.

Oinclus mexioanus ardesiacus

Sylviid^.

Sialia sialis

mexieana

Eegulus satrapa ..

calendula

Polioptila cserulea.,

nigrioeps

bilineata

albiloris

PAKIDiE.

LophophameB atricristatua

woUweberi

Parua meridionalia

PsaltriparuB melanotia

Auripar ub flavicepa

^

*

■gcQ

Old World, &e.

N.E. Asia.

General Eemarka.

A genus occurring throughout Colombia, Vene- zuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

Bahama Is.

Genus peculiar to Central America.

Genus peculiar to Central America.

Peculiar to Socorro I.

Genus extending to Galapago Is.

Genua occurring also in S. America and W. Indiea.

Genus also found in the S.-American Andes and in the mountains of the Old World.

[to Nicaragua. Bermuda. A N.-American genua extending south

Genus also repreaented in the Old World

Bahama Is.

Genua also found in the Old W^orld.

[confined to the high mountains. Genua also found in tlie Old World : in Mexico Genus also represented in N. America. Lower California.

The dagger (t) indicates that specimens were subsequently sent ua from theae distriota.

XIV

INTEODrCTION.

Geographical Distribution of the Species (continued).

Vol. I, (contin.).

SiTTID/E.

Sitta aculeata

pygmiea

CEnTiiriD.E. Certhia mexicana

Teoglodttidj?.

Campylorhynchus albibrunneus .

eapistratus

humilis

J0C08US

giilaris

brunneieapillus

guttatus

zonatus

pallesoens

Salpinctes obsoletus

Catherpea mexicanus

sumiohrasti

Cyphorhiuus lawrencii

Mioroceroulus philomela . . . .

lusoinia

Uropsila leucogastra

Henieorhina leuoosticta

leueophrys

Thryophilus rufalbus

einaloa

modestus

zeledoni

leucotis

thoraoicua

pleurostiotus

niaoriua

semibadiua

caataneua

nigricapillus

Thryothorue faaciativentria .

atrigularis

hyperythrus

maculipectua

felix

lawrencii

berlandieri

albinucha

bairdi

Troglodytes aedou

inaularia

intermedius

furvua

solstitialia

brunneiooUis

CistiOthorua paluatria

polyglottus ,

MoTACILLIDiE.

Anthus ludovicianus rul'ua

as

K od m o

o ^

M

^ o

Old World, &c.

General Remarks.

Qeuus also found in the Old World.

[Old World. Genus also represented in N. America and in the

Genus extending to S. America.

Lower California.

Genus represented in S. America. Genus represented in S. America.

Genua represented in the W. Indies.

Tres Marias Is. only.

Genus also found in tbe Old World. Peculiar to Socorro I.

Genus distributed through N. America generally, and over nearh the whole of S. America.

[Genus widely distributed in the Old World. ( Migrates in winter as far south a.«i 6uo,lemaIa.

IXTEODUCTION.

XV

Geographical Distribution of the Species [continued).

Vol. I. (contin.). Mkiotiltid^.

Mniotilta varia

Protonotaria cilrea

HelminthotheruB vermivorua . Helminthophaga chrysoplera .

pinus

rufioapilla

celata

peregrina

Parula amerioana....

inornata

insularis

nigrilora

superciliosa ...

gutturalis

DendroeoB sestiva . . . ,

Tieilloti

cserulesoens ...

coronata

auduboni

maculosa

cierulea

pennsylvanioa .

castanea

blaekburniEe . . .

dorainica

decora

nigrescens

virens

occiden talis

chrysoparia

townsendi

discolor

Peucedromus olivaceus

Siurus aurioapillus

noTeboracensis

motacilla

Oporornis f ormosa

G-eotlilypis trichas

melanops

speciosa

chiriquensis

eaninuoha

poliooephala

Philadelphia

macgillivrayi

loteria viridis

Qranatellus venustus . .

francesose

sallsei

OardeUina rubrifrons . .

Brgaticus ruber

versicolor

Myiodioctes canadensis

naitratus

pusillus

Baaileuterus bivittatus..

culicivorus

leucopygius

melauogenys

belli

rufifrons

a

o

t » t t ... t »

Old World, &c.

General Eemarks.

[tidae wintering in Mexico and Centrnl America. One of the many N.-American species of Mniotil-

Genus extending to S. America. Tres Marias Is. and Socorro I.

Bahama Is. Bahama Is. Bahama Is.

Has been found at sea near Swan I. [tains.

In Mexico and Guatemala confined to high moun- Bermuda Is.

Winter visitant to Central America.

Bahama Is. A winter migrant from the north.

A winter migrant from the north. A winter migrant from the north. Lower California.

The only other known species of the genus is con- fined to Amazonia. Tres Marias Is. only.

Genus peculiar to Mexico and Guatemala. Migrating south from N. America in winter.

' Cozumel I.

XVI

Vol. I. (contin.).

MifioTiLTrD/E (contin,.).

Basileuterus delattrii

mesochrysus

Setophaga rutioilla

picta

miniata

aurantiaoa

torquata

lacrymosa

VieeoniDjE.

Tireo calidris

oliTaceus

flavoviridis . . . .

magister

philadelphicus .

gilvuB

amauronotus .

josepbsD

flavifrona

Bolitarius

caasini

- plumbeus

atricapillus

no7eboraoensis

belli

oehraceus

pallens

huttoni

carmioli

hypoohr jseus

Neochloe brevipemiia .... Hylophilus decurtatus ...

aurantiifrons

ochraceiceps

viridiflavus

Vireolanius melitophrys ,

pulchellus

Cyclorhls flayiventria ... flayipectus

LANIIDiE.

Lanius ludovioiaBus

Ampelid*.

AmpeliB cedrovum

Ptilogonys cinereua

caudatuB

Phainopepla nitenB

Fhainoptila melauoxantha ,

HlEUKDINID*.

Progne purpurea

chalybea

Petrochelidon pyrrhonota

Bwainsoni

fulra

Atticora cyanoleuca

pileata

INTEODUCTION.

Geographical Distribution of the Species (continued).

tit

J3

^

Old World, &c.

General Remarks.

Bahama Is. A migratory Bpeeies.

Migrates down E. coast and to the W. Indies. Tres Marias Is.

Bermuda.

Trea Marias Is.

Genua peculiar to Mexico.

Genus widely distributed in the Old World.

Genus peculiar to Central America.

Genua peculiar to the mountains of Ooata Eica.

Genus also represented in W. Indies.

[tralia Genus represented in S. Africa, India, and Aua

■^ Subsequently received from Cozumel I. and Ruatan I.

INTEODUCTION.

xvii

Geographical Distribution of the Species (continued).

Vol. I. (contin.).

HmrHDiNiD^ {contin.).

Atticora tibialis

Hirundo erythrogaster

Taohyoineta thalassinus

bicolor

albUinea

Stelgidopteryx serripennis

uropygialis

Cotile riparia

CCEREBID^.

Diglossa baritula . . .

plumbea

Daonis cayana

ultramarina . . .

-venusta

viguieri

Chlorophanes spiza .

Coereba cyanea

lucida

Certhiola mexicana . r- caboti

Tanaqeid^e.

Chlorophonia occipitalis

callophrys

cyanodorsalis

Euphonia elegantiseima

affinis

minuta

gracilis

luteicapilla

hirundinacea

gnatho

laniirostris

gouldi

fulvicrissa

annse

Calliste florida

guttata

icterocepbala

gyroloidea

lavinise

cabanisi

dowi

inornata

larvata

Buthraupis arcsei

Tanagra cana

abbas

palmarum

Ebamphocoelua pasaerinii

ioteronotus

dimidiatus

laeiani

uropygialis

Phlogothraupis sanguinolenta

Pyranga rubra

sestiva

cooperi

hepatica

testacea

figlina

m

W

*?

Old World, &o.

General Eemarks.

N. Asia and Europe, and in Africa in winter.

Bermuda Ts. A cosmopolitan genus. Genus widely represented in S. America. Bermuda Is.

Bermuda Is.

Genus represented in S.- American Andes.

Genus largely represented in W. Indies. Peculiar to Cozumel I.

Genus represented in S. America.

Genus represented in the island of St. Vincent.

Genus largely represented in S. America.

Genus peculiar to Central America. Bermuda Is. Bermuda Is.

BIOL. CENTE.-AMEB., Aves, Vol. I., November 1904.

xvm

INTEODUCTION.

Geographical Distribution of the Species (continued).

^

i Z5

[•4

* » *

#

* * »

W

t t t'

f4

1 i

. -a

Old World, &e.

General Remarks.

Vol. I. (contin.). Tanaqkid* (contin.). Pyranga roseigularis

eryfchrocephala

t

»

t

* »

* *

t

... »

* ..

* *

* #

* »

ft »

Chlorothraupis oliTacea

carmioli

Phoenicothraupis rubicoides

*

...

»

*

Tinacea

fuseioauda

»

+

salviiii

* *

* »

* *

t *

Lanio aurantius

Genus represented in S. America.

leuoothorax

*

» » #

*

* * *

#

* * »

»

» *

melanopygius

Eucometis cristata

apodocephala

*

*

»

*

»

* » » » » * » # « »

cassini

Taohyphonus melaleucus

luctuosus

*

xanthopygius

chiysomelas

delattrii

* # »

» »

nitidissimus ,

Chlorospingus ophtbalmicuB

»

*

postooularis

olivaceus

albitemporalis

punotulatug ,

pileatus ,

* #

hypopbsBua ,

Buarremon assimilis

# ..

« *

# »

« * » »

# # » #

# »

# » »

virenticeps

»

* *

t t

brunneinucha

albinucha

oapitalis

tibialis

craesirostris

Arreraon aurantiirostris

* *

* *

* *

*

»

t

Genus largely represented in S. America.

Saltator atriceps

t

piumbeiceps

albicoUis

Pitylus grossua

»

# * » *

*

celsuo

t

« »

t

*

*

*

- poliogaster

Fbinghlid*. Pheucticus chrysopeplus

»

Genus represented in S.-American Andes.

tibialis

Hedymoles ludovioianus

1, * * »

^ # t #

# *

t #

»

» t

t

Migratory species.

melanocephalus ^

Gardinalis Tirginianus <

Genua represented in S. America. Lower California ; Tre.s Marias Is.

igneus J

carneus

t *

*

*

»

# ...

# »

... »

*

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata si

Lower California.

Gruiraca ■oserulea ^

concreta

cyanoides

parellina

. «

*

*

t *

Chryzoborus nuttingi

funereus

»

■•

__

INTEODUCTION.

XIX

Geographical Distribution of the Species [continued).

4

1

o

W

3

o

■3

i

1 o O

»

13!

^- Old World, &c.

General Remarks.

Vol. I. {contin.).

FfiiNGiLLiDiE (contin.).

Amaurospiza concolor

Spermophila minuta

* ...

*

* *

* »

* * ... ...^

...!..'

» ... * ...

* *

Genus peculiar to southern part of Centr. America.

Genus largely represented in the Antilles. Peculiar to Cozumel I., Holbox I., & Yucatan. Lower California. Peculiar to Tehuantepec.

A migratory species.

Bahama Is.

Bahama Is.

Genus represented in S. America.

Lower California.

Genus largely represented in N. America.

8000-12,000 ft.

Genus represented in N. America.

Buatan I.

Lower California.

Lower California.

Cozumel I. ; genus represented in S. America. Peculiar to Peten.

? Winter visitants to Mexico and Guatemala.

Genus also represented in S. America.

!

Genus peculiar to Mexico. Genus represented in S. America.

Genus peculiar to Mexico. Alpine. Peculiar to Socorro I.

parva

* »

*

t

*

*

1- t

* »

* *

moreleti ^

gutturalis